Dr Margaret Mungherera, according to Uganda Medical Association.
She died at the age of 60 on Saturday morning in India where she had gone for medical treatment.
Dr Fred Biso, the president of the Uganda Medical Association confirmed that Mungherera had succumbed to cancer.
She had been flown out of the country on Thursday, Dr Biso said, after being admitted in Nsambya Hospital for a week.
Her death coincides with the World Cancer Day that is marked every February 4 to raise awareness of cancer as well as encouraging prevention, detection, and treatment.
At the time of her death, she was the chairperson of the International Association of Medical Regulatory Authorities- a post she has held since October last year.
She is a founder member of Uganda Women Medical Doctors Association and also served as the president of the World Medical Association from October 2013 until October 2014.
She is one of five siblings, four of whom are medical doctors.
She attended Nakasero Primary School and Gayaza High School for her elementary and secondary education, before moving to Makerere University in 1977 to study human medicine.
She graduated in 1982 and proceeded to the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, where she obtained a Diploma in Tropical Medicine and Hygiene in 1984.
In 1992, she obtained a Master of Medicine in psychiatry from Makerere University. Her chosen field of concentration is forensic psychiatry.
From 1992 until 2000, she worked as a registrar at the Butabika National Referral Hospital and she was responsible for forensic services.
in 2000 until 2003, she worked as consultant psychiatrist at the Mulago National Referral Hospital.
Since 2012, she had been the clinical head of the Directorate of Medical Services at the Mulago National Referral Hospital, before she retired on June 30, 2015 after 31 years of continuous service.